Lindehn and the Danish Gambit

Lindehn and the Danish Gambit

Lindehn was important for the development of a new opening, the Danish Gambit. In the period 1856-1879 many of his games were published in various magazines and newspapers with annotations by Staunton, Steinitz, Mackenzie and Blackburne among others, including victories against prominent masters such as Steinitz, Kolisch and Mackenzie.

He never played in any serious tournaments or matches, and that might explain why he is largely forgotten today.

Hans Anton Westesson Lindehn was born 26 February 1826 in Knislinge, Sweden. His father, Hans Westesson (1784-1825), died three months before Lindehn’s birth. His mother was Catharina Westesson neé Andersson (died 1862). Westesson senior was a church warden and his death must have been a severe financial blow to the family. Despite this Lindehn was able to study at the Lund University from 1843, at first religion but he abandoned that and chose philosophy instead. He graduated in 1853, becoming a doctor of philosophy, then worked as a teacher in Uppsala.

A small note in Schachzeitung 1856 p. 306 was the first documentation of Lindehn as a chess player.

Lindehn proposes a new gambit

“From Upsala, we have received a letter from Mr. Lindehn, in which he imparts an opening that to our knowledge has never been analyzed. 1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4. If Black now captures on b2 with his pawn on c3 White gains a strong attack with Bxb2, which resembles the so-called ‘very compromised game’.” The ‘very compromised game’ is referring to a variation in the Scotch Gambit, 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d4 exd4 4. Bc4 Bb4+ 5. c3 dxc3 6. 0-0 cxb2.

Lindehn himself later wrote: “The character of this opening, such as we imagined it, is that 3. c3 dxc3 should be followed immediately by 4. Bc4. If 3.c3 is answered by something else than 3… dxc3 then the character of the game will be different, but White will always be able to advantageously take control of the center with cxd4.” (J. G. Schultz: Undervisning i schackspelet, 1869 p. 116)

We have already established that the Danish player Dreier invented the Danish Gambit, but no games or analysis of his were ever published. Could Lindehn have (re-)invented it without knowledge of his predecessor? Lund, where Lindehn studied from 1843 to 1853, is located close to Copenhagen and it is likely that he visited that city and even played some chess there. But this is just speculation, of course. However, he must have known the first published Danish Gambit which was played between two Swedish players. It was a game played by correspondence and it went 1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. bxc3 etc. The 3rd move, according to the White player, Kindblad, was a clerical error. He meant to play 3. Bc4, and presumably if 3… Bb4+ then 4.c3, a popular variation at the time. The Black player, Svanberg, annotated the game for Schachzeitung, 1849 p. 143. And Lindehn knew Svanberg well, we even have a game between them where Lindehn plays his gambit.

Did Lindehn himself claim to be the inventor? His friend J. G. Schultz in his book Undervisning i schackspelet (1869) acknowledged a Danish predecessor without mentioning Dreier by name, but argued that someone “playing a move by chance” shouldn’t count for much. Lindehn might not have addressed this subject in writing, but J. B. and E. M. Muñoz in the Brooklyn Chess Chronicle 1885 p. 57 wrote “A favorite opening of the Doctor’s, and one, we believe, of which he claimed to be the originator.”

From this period, 1856-1861, 6 games where Lindehn played the Danish Gambit have been preserved.

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Adolf Ferdinand Svanberg
Uppsala 185?
Annotations by Max Lange(?)
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3
This attack is stronger than previously suspected. However, the correct reply to 3… dxc3 is 4. Bc4, not the earlier played 4. bxc3 or 4. Nxc3.
4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Bb4+ 6. Nd2 Qg5 7. Ngf3 Bxd2+ 8. Nxd2 Qxg2 9. Ke2 d6
9… d5 came into consideration, a sample line is 10. Qa4+ Bd7 11. Bb5 c6 12. Rhg1 cxb5 13. Rxg2 followed by Bxg7.
10. h3 Bxh3 11. Rxh3 Qxh3 12. Nf3 Qg4

13. Bxf7+
13. Qd5 is also interesting.
13… Kxf7 14. Qd5+ Ke7 15. Rg1 c6 16. Rxg4 cxd5 17. Rxg7+ Ke8 18. Rxb7 dxe4 19. Ng5 Ne7
Trying to save the exchange by 19… Nf6 would lead to mate in 4 moves. [presumably 20. Bxf6 Rg8? 21. Re7+ Kd8 22. Ne6+ Kc8 23. Rc7#. Ed.]
20. Bxh8 d5 21. Nxh7 Nbc6 22. Ng5 Rc8 23. Bf6 Nf5 24. Rh7 Ncd4+ 25. Kf1 Rc1+ 26. Kg2 Ne2 27. Rxa7 Rg1+
27… Nf4+ should be preferred.
28. Kh2 Rf1 29. Kg2 Rd1 30. Ra8+ Kd7 31. Rd8+ Kc6 32. Rc8+ Kb5 33. Rc2 Nf4+ 34. Kh2 Nd3 35. Ne6 Ne1 36. Rc5+ Ka4 37. Bc3
and after a number of fruitless checks Black resigned. 1-0.
Schachzeitung 1859 p. 167

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: NN
Stockholm 185?
Annotations by Søren Anton Sørensen
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Nf6 6. e5 Bb4+ 7. Nc3 Qe7
When White attacks with 6. e5 then Bb4+ followed by Qe7 is the best defence.
8. Nge2 Ne4 9. O-O Nxc3 10. Nxc3 Bxc3 11. Bxc3 O-O
These moves can be found in Handbuch des Schachspiels, 5th edition, and von der Lasa stops the variation here remarking: “The complete development of the black game is possible, but not easy.” The following continuation confirms these words, and even if the attack is led by Lindehn with clarity and without many chances wasted, we have been able to pinpoint the moment where Black could have exploited his superior forces.
12. Kh1 Nc6 13. f4 d6 14. exd6 Qxd6 15. Qc2 Be6 16. Rad1 Qe7 17. Bd3 f5 18. Rf3 Nb4 19. Qb2 Nxd3 20. Rfxd3
It is not better to take with the d1-rook.
20… Rad8 21. Bxg7 Rxd3 22. Rxd3

22… Qxg7
Black has played well until now, but here he overlooks the saving move: 22… Bc4! If White covers the threatening mate with the rook, then the bishop on g7 is immediately lost, and if 23. h3 or 23. Qc3 then 23… Bxd3 24. Bxf8 Kxf8! and White can’t save the game.
23. Rg3 Rf7 24. Rxg7+ Rxg7 25. Qxb7 Bxa2 26. Qc8+ Kf7 27. Qxf5+
and White wins. 1-0.
Schachzeitung 1858 p. 459
Nordisk Skaktidende 1875 p. 71

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: J. I. Elfving
Stockholm 1858
Annotations by H. A. W. Lindehn
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Nf6 6. e5 Qe7
We don’t believe this is the best move. The queen obstructs the bishop and is badly placed in front of the king in case of very likely rook attack. Instead, von der Lasa analyses 6… Bb4+ 7. Kf1 and he concludes that Black is better and that the opening is disadvantageous for White. However, we believe that 7. Kf1, which loses the right to castle and imprisons the rook, is a bad move, and instead White should reply with 7. Nc3, and if 7… Ne4 then 8. Nge2.
7. Nd2 d6 8. Ngf3 Nbd7 9. O-O Nxe5 10. Nxe5 dxe5 11. Bxe5 Be6 12. Re1 Qd8
Moves the queen away from its compromised position in front of the king.
13. Qb3 Be7
If 13… Qxd2 then 14. Bxf6 which loses for Black.
14. Bxe6 fxe6
Maybe 14… Qxd2 would have been better.
15. Qxe6 Qd7

16. Qb3 Qxd2 17. Bc3 Qd5 18. Rxe7+ Kxe7
Better was 18… Kf8, however White could 19. Bxf6 Qxb3 20. axb3 gxf6 21. Rxc7 winning another pawn.
19. Bxf6+ Ke6 20. Re1+ Black resigns. 1-0
Schultz: Undervisning i Schackspelet (1871) p. 115

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: J. I. Elfving
Stockholm 18??
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Qe7 6. Nd2 f5 7. Ngf3 fxe4 8. O-O c6 9. Re1 Nf6 10. Bxf6 Qxf6 11. Nxe4 Qf4 12. Nd6+ 1-0
Schultz: Undervisning i Schackspelet (1871) p. 116

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: J. I. Elfving
Uppsala 185?
Annotations by Max Lange(?)
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. Bc4 Nf6 4. c3 dxc3 5. Ne2 Bc5 6. e5 d5 7. exf6 Qxf6 8. O-O dxc4
If 8… cxb2 then 9. Bxb2 Qxb2 10. Qxd5 Be6 11. Qxc5 Bxc4 12. Qxc4 Qxa1 13. Qb5+ with advantage to White.
9. Nbxc3 O-O 10. Nd5 Qd8 11. b4 cxb3 12. Qxb3 Be6 13. Nef4 Nc6 14. Bb2 b6 15. Rad1 Bd6 16. Qg3 Ne5 17. Nh5 Ng6

18. Ndf6+ Kh8
If 18… gxf6 then 19. Rxd6 still decides for White.
19. Rxd6 Qxd6 20. Qg5 h6 21. Ne4 Kg8 22. Bxg7
and White won. 1-0
Schachzeitung 1860 pp60-61

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Severin Bergh
Stockholm 18??
Annotations by Gustaf & Ludvig Collijn
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 Nc6 4. Bc4?
Better is 4. cxd4.
4… Nf6 5. Nf3 Nxe4 6. O-O d5 7. Bd3 Be7 8. Re1 f5 9. cxd4 O-O 10. b3 Qd6 11. Bb2 Qh6 12. Ne5 Bd6 13. Re3
This move and the following are weak, and Black gets a clear advantage. Better was 13. f3 followed by Bc1 and Nc3.

13… f4 14. Bxe4
Better was 14. Rxe4. If 14… dxe4 then 15. Bc4+ and White regains the exchange as 15… Be6? is followed by 16. Bxe6+ Qxe6 17. d5.
14… fxe3 15. Bxd5+ Kh8 16. f3
Black had clearly missed that he couldn’t play 16. Nf7+ because of 16… Rxf7 17. Bxf7 e2!
16… Nxe5 17. dxe5 Bc5 18. Qe2 c6 19. Be4 Bf5 20. Nc3 Rad8
Threatening Rd2.
21. Rd1 Rxd1+ 22. Nxd1 Bxe4 23. fxe4 Qf4!
The beginning of the end.
24. Bc3 Qf1+! 25. Qxf1 e2+ 26. Nf2 exf1=Q+ 27. Kxf1 Rxf2+ 28. Ke1 Rxg2, White resigned. 0-1
Tidskrift för Schack 12/1906 pp. 346-347
Collijn: Lärobok i Schack (1921) pp. 238-239

There doesn’t seem to exist any photos or drawings of Lindehn but there is an unflattering and slightly sarcastic description of his character by a contemporary: “Lindehn thought highly of himself and his playing strength and would only play lesser mortals with a rook handicap. Once, insignificant me had the honour of playing a three-game match under those conditions and were lucky to defeat the great Lindehn. The owner of the café [La Croixs Café in Stockholm. Ed.] W. de la Croix, who didn’t like the arrogant doctor, was so elated over the result that he gave a round of free punch to everyone.” Robert Sahlberg in Tidskrift för Schack 12/1906 p. 332.

European travels

Between 1862 and 1865 Lindehn travelled through Europe visiting several countries but mainly staying in the two important chess cities London and Paris. It is not known why he decided to leave Sweden, but one source speculates that it was to further his education and learn new languages. This gave him a chance to play his gambit against some of the world’s best chess players, and maybe that was part of the motivation as well.

Lindehn’s first stop was Copenhagen in the spring of 1862. A report by Balduin Sørensen in Schachzeitung (1862 p. 222) gives his results against the Danish players: he played 3 informal matches, defeating Govert Nielsen 7-6 with 2 draws, and Balduin Sørensen 7-5 with 1 draw, but was clearly outmatched against Martin Severin From losing 2-10 with 1 draw. Lindehn also played single games against Pritzel, Lorck, Hemp and S. A. Sørensen “with various luck”.

Balduin Sørensen

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Martin Severin From
Copenhagen 1862
Annotations by Søren Anton Sørensen
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 d3
That From declines the offered gambit shows his faith in the strength of this opening. But he probably also took into consideration that the Swedish master knew more than most about the labyrinths of the Danish Gambit.
4. Nf3 d5 5. Bxd3 dxe4 6. Qa4+
White avoids the queen exchange.
6… Nc6 7. Bxe4 Bd7 8. Qd1 Bd6 9. O-O Nf6 10. Bg5 h6 11. Qe2

11… hxg5
Lindehn hardly expected Black to expose himself to a discovered check, losing his right to castle. From’s move is excellent, however. Black gets a strong attack against the enemy king.
12. Bxc6+ Kf8 13. Bxd7 Qxd7 14. h3 g4 15. Nd4 gxh3 16. Qf3 h2+ 17. Kh1 Re8 18. Qf5 Qxf5 19. Nxf5 Ng4 20. Ne3
If White takes the bishop he is mated in 3 moves. After the text move Lindehn lost another pawn and eventually the game. 0-1
Skakbladet 11/1905-06 pp. 63-64

White: Martin Severin From & Balduin Sørensen
Black: H. A. W. Lindehn & Govert Nielsen
Copenhagen 1862(?)
Annotations by Søren Anton Sørensen
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Nf6 6. e5 Bb4+ 7. Kf1
7. Nd2 is also a good move.
7… d5 8. Bb5+ Bd7
Both the spokesmen for the Danish Gambit [Lindehn and From, Ed.] are squaring up against each other. The game doesn’t excel in surprising turns but is well played and has the added interest that the Swedish master tries to organize the defence by sacrificing a piece for 3 pawns.
9. Qa4 Be7 10. exf6 Bxf6 11. Nc3 c6 12. Bd3 O-O 13. Nge2 b5 14. Qc2 g6 15. Nf4 Na6 16. a3 Nc5 17. h3 Nxd3 18. Qxd3 Bf5 19. Qf3 Be4
Black gains a couple of tempi, but the question is whether the price of exchanging the valuable bishops is too high.
20. Qd1 Qb8 21. Qd2 Bg7
To advance the f-pawn.
22. Nxe4 Bxb2 23. Qxb2 dxe4

24. Qf6
The decisive move. Black is prevented from moving his f-pawn and the strength of the pawns becomes an illusion.
24… Re8 25. Rc1 b4 26. axb4 Qxb4 27. Kg1 c5 28. Kh2 Qd4 29. Qg5 Re5 30. Qg3 c4
Black dare not move the f-pawn, Nxg6 and Rhd1 would follow and White penetrates Black’s position with devastating result.
31. Rhd1 Qc5 32. Qc3 Rf5 33. Qe3 Rc8
Exchanging the queens would lose the c- or e-pawn.
34. Rd4 c3 35. Qxe4 a5 36. Nd5 Qd6+ 37. f4 Kf8 38. Nxc3 and wins. 1-0
Nordisk Skaktidende 1873 pp. 357-358
Deutsche Schachzeitung 1874 pp. 85-86
This consultation game was published undated but is likely from Lindehn’s 1862 visit to Copenhagen.

More games from this period:

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: George Henry Mackenzie
Annotations by Francis Joseph Young
London 1862
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 Nf6 5. e5 d5 6. Nxc3 dxc4 7. Qxd8+ Kxd8 8. exf6 gxf6 9. Bf4 Bf5 10. O-O-O+ Bd3 11. Nb5 Nd7! 12. Bxc7+ Kc8
Best. If 12… Ke8 13. Re1+ Be7 14. Bd6 Ne5 15. Bxe7 Kxe7 16. f4 winning a piece.

13. Bd6
A natural move, but turning out badly; 13. Bf4 was probably safest.
13… a6! 14. Bxf8 axb5 15. Bd6 Rxa2 16. Nf3 Rg8 17. Bg3
Of course, if 17. g3 Be4 is the reply.
17… Nc5 18. Kd2
Black threatened mate by Nb3. If 18. Nd4 Rd8 wins.
18… Rxb2+ 19. Ke3 Re2+ 20. Kd4 Nb3+ White resigned.
For if 21. Kd5 (the only move to prevent mate) Rd8+ 22. Bd6 Re6 etc.
The British Chess Magazine 1898 pp. 330-331

In connection with the following game, the editor of La Nouvelle Régence, Paul Journoud informed his readers that Lindehn had played this opening with great success in both Germany and Belgium. Lindehn’s opponent was from Gent so the game was probably played there.

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Metdepenningen
Gent(?) 1863
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 c2 5. Qxc2 c6 6. Qb3 Qe7 7. Nc3 Nf6 8. Nge2 b5 9. Bd3 Ng4 10. O-O Qh4 11. h3 h5 12. Bf4 Nh6 13. Bg3 Qd8 14. e5 g5 15. Ne4 Be7 16. f4 g4 17. h4 Nf5 18. Ng5 Nh6 19. Kh1 Na6 20. Qc3 b4 21. Qc2 Nc5

22. Bg6 Ba6 23. Rae1 Qa5 24. e6 dxe6 25. Nxe6 fxg6 26. Qxg6+ Kd7 27. Nxc5+ Qxc5 28. Rd1+ Kc7 29. f5+ Kb7 30. Rd7+ Kc8 31. Rc7+ 1-0
La Nouvelle Régence 1863 pp. 211-212

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Ignaz Kolisch
Paris 1863(?)
Annotations by Gustaf & Ludvig Collijn
1 e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Bb4+ 6. Nd2
Lindehn usually played the knight to d2. Later Nc3 has been found to be stronger.
6… Bxd2+
Helping White’s development.
7. Qxd2 Nf6 8. e5 Ne4
8… d5 was better.
9. Qd4 Ng5 10. Ne2 Nc6 11. Qf4 Qe7 12. O-O Ne6 13. Qg3 O-O 14. Kh1
To play f2-f4.

14… Qg5
[Black can force an exchange of queens with 14… Qb4! and White doesn’t have enough compensation for his pawns. Ed.]
15. Qc3 b5
Sacrificing to find counter play.
16. Bxb5 Bb7 17. f4 Qg4 18. Rf3 f5?
Weakens the king’s position. Black is clearly still dreaming of an attack.
19. exf6 Rxf6 20. Rg3 Qh4

21. Qxf6
Winning a piece and the game.
21… Qxg3 22. Qxe6+ dxe6 23. Nxg3 Ne7 24. Bd7 Bd5 25. Nh5 Rd8 26. Ba4
If 26. Bxg7 then Nf5. [But after for example 27. Be5 Black can’t take the bishop anyway. Ed.]
26… Nf5 27. Kg1 Bxg2 28. Be5 Bf3 29. Bb3 Kf7 30. Ng3 Ne3? 31. Kf2 Black resigned. 1-0
La Nouvelle Régence 1863 p111
Tidskrift för Schack 12/1906 pp. 337-338 and 10/1971 p. 331

Lindehn’s victory against Maczuski is his most widely published game by far. It began to make the rounds in 1869 when Schachzeitung picked it up from the Swedish weekly magazine Ny Illustrerad Tidning (March 6). It has since been published in magazines, newspapers and books over and over again. Just to mention a few of the books:
Ellis: Chess Sparks (1895) p. 53
Kagan: 300 kurze Glanzpartien (1916) p. 92
du Mont: 200 Miniature Games of Chess (1941) p. 83
Roisman: 400 Kurzpartien (1980) p. 19
Watson: Mastering the Chess Openings. Volume 4 (2010) p. 135

And it is a charming little game, where Lindehn first sacrifices 4 pawns and then his queen.

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Ladislas Maczuski
Paris 1863
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Bb4+ 6. Nc3 Nf6 7. Nge2 Nxe4 8. O-O Nxc3 9. Nxc3 Bxc3 10. Bxc3 Qg5 11. Re1+ Kd8 12. f4 Qxf4 13. Bxg7 Rg8

14. Qg4 Qd6 15. Bf6+ Black resigned. 1-0
Schachzeitung 1869 pp. 144-145

The next game follows the same line as the Maczuski game, but is mainly interesting because of Blackburne’s notes to the opening. He would later go on to use the Danish Gambit as a weapon to weed out the weaker players at his many simultaneous exhibitions.

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: NN
Paris 18??
White gave the odds of a rook (Ra1)
Annotations by Joseph Henry Blackburne
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3
This line of attack is not mentioned in any of the “books”, instead of which they give 3. Bc4 as best. The move in the text was first introduced some years ago, and it is still strongly recommended by Dr. Lindehn; it has also lately been adopted by Paulsen, the famous blindfold player; we, however, are unable to express an opinion upon its merits, if any, not having examined it, but at some future time we may give a short analysis of this new move; in the meantime, we propose to name it the “Lindehn Gambit”.
3… dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2
These moves are not to be recommended, because they only facilitate the development of White’s forces.
5. Bxb2 Bb4+ 6. Nc3 Nf6 7. Nge2 Nxe4 8. O-O Nxc3 9. Nxc3 Bxc3 10. Bxc3 d6
Perhaps his best move, for if he had castled, White would have played Qg4, winning easily.
11. Bxg7 Rg8 12. Re1+ Be6 13. Qg4 Qf6 14. Bxe6 Qxg7
If 14… Rxg7, White mates in two moves.

15. Bxf7+
Very well played, for if 15… Kxf7, White plays 16. Qe6+, mating next move.
15… Kd8 16. Qh4+ Kc8 17. Qh3+ Nd7 18. Bxg8 Qxg8 19. Re7 Qd8 20. Rxh7 Kb8
The only move to save the queen.
21. Rh8
Better than taking the knight. The game is played throughout by Dr. Lindehn with uncommon ability.
21… Nf8 22. Qh4 Qe8 23. Qe4
It is obvious the queen cannot be taken. [Echoes the queen sacrifice in the Maczuski game. Ed.]
23… Qf7 24. Qf3 Qxf3 25. gxf3 b5 26. Rxf8+ Kb7 27. Rxa8 1-0
And wins, because Black cannot stop the h-pawn from queening.
Household Chess Magazine, February 28 1865 p. 25

The game against Steinitz was first published in Ny Illustrerad Tidning in 1865 with Lindehn’s notes. But it seems to have been forgotten until Tidskrift för Schack picked it up in 1906 and then it found its way into the opening manuals, for example Cordel’s Theorie und Praxis des Schachspiels (1912) and the famous 4th edition of Lärobok i schack (1921) by the Collijn brothers.

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Wilhelm Steinitz
London 1864
Annotations by H. A. W. Lindehn
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 Nf6 5. Nxc3 Bb4 6. Nge2 O-O
6… Nxe4 would have been unfavourable for Black.
7. e5 Ne4 8. O-O Nxc3 9. bxc3 Bc5 10. Ng3 Nc6 11. Qh5 d6
If 11… g6 then 12. Qh6 with a persistent attack.
12. Bg5

12… Qe8
Steinitz believed that this move lost him the game and that he should have played 12… Qd7 instead. But after 13. Bd3 White has a definite advantage in all the variations I have been able to find.
13. exd6 cxd6 14. Rfe1 Ne5 15. Re4 Be6 16. Rh4 h6 17. Bxh6

17… Ng6
[Only this was the decisive mistake. Steinitz could have defended himself with 17… g6! 18. Qg5 f6! Ed.]
18. Bxg7! Kxg7 19. Qh6+ Kf6 20. Ne4+ Ke7 21. Bxe6 fxe6 22. Qg5+ Kd7 23. Nxc5+ dxc5 24. Qxc5! Qc8
Obviously mate is threatened so the rook on h4 couldn’t be captured.
25. Rd1+ Ke8 26. Qh5 Rg8 27. Qh7 Ne7 28. Rf4 Black resigned. 1-0
Tidskrift för Schack 12/1906 p. 339

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: George Alcock MacDonnell
London 1865
Annotations by Howard Staunton
1 e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3
A pardonable deviation from the routine course in ordinary play, though hardly commendable in a match game. [The great Staunton was not impressed by the Danish Gambit! Ed.]
3… dxc3 4. Bc4 Nf6 5. Ne2 d5 6. exd5 cxb2 7. Bxb2 Bb4+ 8. Nbc3 O-O 9. O-O Bf5 10. Nd4 Bg6 11. Nce2 Nbd7 12. Ne6
A move good in style and conception.
12… fxe6 13. dxe6 Kh8 14. exd7 Qxd7 15. Qb3
He could have won a pawn here by capturing the knight; but perhaps the move in the text is preferable.
15… Bd6 16. Be6 Qe7 17. Nd4 Bc5 18. Nf3 Rae8 19. Rae1 Qd6 20. Ne5
The position now is highly interesting, and the play on both sides very clever.

20… Bc2 21. Qxc2 Rxe6 22. Ng6+ hxg6 23. Rxe6 Qxe6 24. Qxc5 Qd6 25. Qxa7 Ng4 26. g3 b6 27. Qa4 Qe6 28. Bc3
To prevent the capture of his f-pawn by rook or knight. For this purpose, however, playing 28. Qd4 appears to be equally effective and more expeditious.
28… Qf5 29. Qd4 Nf6 30. Re1 c5

31. Qh4+
Had he played 31. Qd6, Black might have taken the f-pawn, checking, and, when his queen had been captured, have given double check, by Ne4+, etc. [Staunton missed that 31. Qd6 loses immediately to 31… Nd5 threatening both f2 and the bishop. Ed.]
31… Qh5 32. Qf4 Qf5 33. Qxf5 gxf5 34. Re6 Nd5 35. Be5 b5 36. Rd6 Nb4 37. a3 Nc2 38. Rc6 c4 39. Rc7 Re8 40. Bxg7+ Kg8 41. Bb2 Re1+ 42. Kg2 Rb1 43. Be5 Nxa3 44. Rg7+ Kf8 45. Rc7 b4 46. h4 c3 47. h5 Nc2 48. h6 Ne1+ 49. Kh3 Nf3 50. Bf4 Kg8 51. g4 Rg1 52. gxf5 b3

53. Rxc3
A fatal mistake; at the very instant, too, if we are not deceived in our calculation, when he might have drawn the game at least: e. g.: 53. h7+ Kh8 (best) 54. f6 Ng5+ 55. Bxg5 Rxg5 56. Rxc3 Rf5 (any other move would lose Black the game.) 57. Rxb3 Rxf6 or 57… Rxf2 and the game must be drawn.
53… b2 54. Rc8+ Kf7 55. Rc7+ Kf6 56. h7 Rh1+ 57. Kg4 b1=Q and White resigned. 0-1
Illustrated London News, April 1 1865

Back to Sweden

In spring 1865 Lindehn settled in Gothenburg where he had found a job as school headmaster. A small ad in a local newspaper (Göteborgsposten 31 March 1865) gives some insight:

The school was S. A. Lefflers privata Elementarskola which would start its lessons in October. An elementarskola was a school that prepared its students for university or other higher education. Lindehn informs potential students that he will add “living languages” to the subjects, probably in contrast to languages such as latin and ancient Greek.

Within a month of this ad another notice (Post och Inrikes Tidningar 20 April 1865) declared Lindehn bankrupt, and his financial troubles would later lead him to take a drastic life changing decision.

Lindehn’s arrival in Gothenburg led to a brief flourish of the local chess scene, but a chess club was only founded years after he had left the city. There are no games from this period, he only met local players with a rook handicap. At some point Lindehn founded his own private school for boys, Lindehnska skolan, and bought a house which he also used for his school. After another bankruptcy in 1870 (Post och Inrikes Tidningar 5 September 1870) he had to sell the house, and the school was sold to another school, Göteborgs Lyceum. It’s not clear whether Lindehn continued to teach at the new school or if he had other employment, but in late 1873 he suddenly disappeared. Not even his closest friends knew where he was.

The new world

Lindehn had left Sweden for the US. He lived in New York until 1875 when he settled in Philadelphia. He was appointed the Swedish commissioner at the Centennial International Exhibition which took place a year later. In connection with this job he wrote a 160-page guide for the Swedish visitors to the exhibition, and it was mainly as a journalist, translator and writer that he made a living.

Lindehn was a correspondent for two Swedish newspapers, Göteborgs Handels- og Sjöfartstidning and the Stockholm paper, Aftonbladet. He became a close friend of the economist Henry Charles Carey, a former chief economic adviser to the US president Abraham Lincoln, and was translating his 3-volume work, Principles of Social Science. It was never published in Swedish, however, maybe because Carey died in 1879. Another project was writing a short biography of Viktor Rydberg for an English translation of the book, Roman Days. Rydberg was a close friend of Lindehn from Gothenburg.

The title page with Lindehn’s name.

In 1877 Lindehn visited Sweden for a brief, final visit. He took contact with the editor of Nordisk Skaktidende, S. A. Sørensen, and started to provide the magazine with news and games from America. In 1881 the editor thanked him for a new bunch of games, but decried that none of them were played by Lindehn himself. He seems to have stopped playing, maybe because at this point he suffered from a severe nerve disease which eventually caused his death on 10 July 1884.

Some Danish Gambits from his time in the US:

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Eugene Delmar
New York 1873
Annotations by Søren Anton Sørensen
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 d5 5. exd5 Bc5 6. Nf3 Nf6 7. Nxc3 O-O 8. O-O Bg4 9. Qd3 Nbd7 10. Bg5 Bxf3 11. gxf3! Ne5 12. Qe2 Nxc4
This exchange is hardly advantageous for Black.
13. Qxc4 Be7 14. Kh1 Qd6 15. Rg1 Qd7
An unfortunate queen maneuver. White gains an important tempo for the attack.
16. Qh4 Qf5 17. Rg3 Bd6 18. f4 Nxd5 19. Bh6 Nxf4
This careless move should have cost the game immediately. There was no other way but 19… g6.
20. Rxg7+ Kh8

21. Rg5
Delmar pointed out that White could have decided the game with 21. Rxh7+ Qxh7 22. Qf6+ Kg8 23. Bxf4.
21… Ng6! 22. Qh5
A simple exchange. 22. Rxf5 Nxh4 23. Rh5 and 24. Bxf8, or 22. Qd4+ would probably have been better.
22… Qxf2 23. Bxf8 Rxf8 24. Rag1 Re8 25. Rf5 Re5!
And the game eventually ended in a draw. ½-½
[White should have good winning chances in the endgame after 26. Qxh7+. Ed.]
Nordisk Skaktidende 1874 pp. 85-86

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: George Henry Mackenzie
New York 1873
Annotations by Wilhelm Steinitz & William N. Potter
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3
This move may bear the test of analysis, but seems to require further examination before an authoritative decision upon its merits can be come to. Those who wish to avoid complications may adopt 3… d5. White’s best reply in that case seems to be 4. Qxd4, upon which Black plays 4… dxe4, with at least an equal game.
4. Bc4 Nf6
Taking the b-pawn at this point may be defensible, but it leads to difficult and hazardous variations.
5. e5
This move cannot be commended. 5. Nxc3 would have been much better. As it is, an exchange of queens takes place, leaving White with two pawns behind, of which only one can be subsequently recovered. Black, it is true, is prevented from castling, but White evidently gains nothing in position on that account.
5… d5 6. Nxc3 dxc4 7. Qxd8+ Kxd8 8. exf6 gxf6 9. Bf4 Bf5 10. O-O-O+ Bd3 11. Nd5 Na6 12. Nxf6 Bd6 13. Be3
A weak move; the only chance White had in this position was to take the bishop, and then bring out the knight to h3.

13… Nb4
Well played; after this White’s game is hopeless.
14. a3 Na2+ 15. Kd2 Be5 16. Nd5 Bxb2 17. Bg5+ Kc8 18. Ne2 c6 19. Nb4 Nxb4 20. axb4 a5 21. Nf4 Bf5 22. Ke3 axb4 and after a few more moves White resigned. 0-1
Mr. Mackenzie, in sending this game, states that Dr. Lindehn (who is well known in London chess circles) had only lately arrived from Europe, and had, probably, not recovered from the effects of the voyage, which accounted for his play being below his usual strength.
The City of London Chess Magazine 1875 pp. 15-16

George Henry Mackenzie

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: George Henry Mackenzie
New York 1874(?)
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 d5 4. exd5 Qxd5 5. Nf3 Bg4 6. Qa4+ Nc6 7. Nxd4 O-O-O 8. Be3 Nf6 9. Nd2 Bc5 10. Nxc6 Bxe3 11. Ne7+ Kb8 12. Nxd5 Bxd2+ 13. Kxd2 Rxd5+ 14. Ke3 Bd7 15. Qc4 Re8+ 16. Kf3 Rf5+ 17. Kg3 Ne4+ 18. Qxe4 Rxe4 and Black won. 0-1
The Chess Players’ Chronicle 1874 p. 74

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: George Henry Mackenzie
New York 1874
Annotations by George Henry Mackenzie
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 d5 4. exd5 Qxd5 5. Nf3 Bg4 6. Qa4+ Nc6 7. Nxd4 O-O-O 8. Be3 Nf6 9. Nd2 Nxd4
[Mackenzie improves on his play in the earlier game. Ed.]
10. cxd4 Kb8 11. Rg1 Bd6 12. Bc4 Qh5 13. d5 b6 14. h3 Bd7 15. Qb3 Rhe8 16. a4

16… Rxe3+
Probably the best move, as it throws White at once on the defensive and prevents the dangerous advance of the a-pawn.
17. fxe3 Bg3+ 18. Kf1 Qf5+ 19. Nf3 Ne4 20. Ke2 Nc5 21. Qc3 Re8 22. Rgf1 Bf4 23. Nd4 Qg5 24. Rxf4
If 24. Rf3 then follows 24… Qxg2+ 25. Rf2 Qxf2+ 26. Kxf2 Ne4+ etc.
24… Qxf4 25. Rf1 Qg3 26. Rg1 f5 27. Ne6 Bxe6 28. dxe6 Nxe6 29. Kd1 Nc5 30. Re1
A fatal error, involving the loss of a clear rook.
30… Rd8+ 31. Kc2 Ne4
And Black wins. 0-1
The Chess Player’s Chronicle 1874 pp. 72-74

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Frederick Perrin
New York 1874
Annotations by Søren Anton Sørensen
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 Nf6 5. Nxc3 Bc5?!
This bishop belongs on b4, from where it pins the knight. With the bishop c5 it resembles a bad Scotch Gambit, and already by move 9 we can see that Black’s position is greatly cramped.
6. e5 Qe7 7. Nf3 O-O 8. O-O Ng4 9. Bg5 Qe8 10. Nd5
The opening is excellently played by White.
10… Bb6 11. Be7 Nc6 12. Bxf8 Qxf8 13. Ng5

13… Nxf2
If Black plays 13… Ncxe5, which Mackenzie recommends, then Lindehn had an interesting and safe continuation: 14. Nxf7 and then a) 14… Nxf2 15. Nxb6! wins or b) 14… Bxf2+ 15. Rxf2 Nxf2 16. Nxe5 Nxd1 17. Ne7+ Kh8 18. N7g6+ hxg6 19. Nxg6+ and wins or c) 14… Nxf7 or 14… Nxc4 15. Qxg4 with a superior game.
14. Qh5 Nh3+ 15. Kh1 Nxg5 16. Qxg5 h6 17. Qg3 Nd8 18. Rf6 Kh8 19. Qh4 Ne6 20. Raf1 Ng5 21. Ne7
Very elegant!
21… gxf6 22. Rxf6 Qxe7 23. Rxh6+
White could have mated in three moves. [There is a mate in four with 23. Qxh6+ Nh7 24. Bd3 Kg8 25. Qxh7+ Kf8 26. Qh8#. Ed.]
23… Kg7 24. Rh8 Kg6 25. Bd3+ f5 26. exf6+ Kxf6 27. Qh6+ Ke5 28. Qg6 Ne6 29. Rh5+ Kd6 30. Qg3+ Kc6 31. Bb5# 1-0
Nordisk Skaktidende 1874 pp. 86-87

A game snippet from Bird to illustrative how to defend against the Danish Gambit:

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Henry Edward Bird
Philadelphia 1876
Annotations by H. E. Bird
I had the pleasure of defending a few attacks at this opening at Philadelphia in 1876 against Dr. Lindehn, a very strong Swedish amateur. It is dangerous to inexperienced practitioners, but properly met quite unsound.
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Bb4+ 6. Nc3
I have in this position played 6. Kf1 and h4, which, I think, yields a more enduring attack.
6… Nc6 7. Nf3 d6 8. O-O Bxc3 9. Bxc3 Nf6 10. Ng5 O-O 11. f4 h6
Remaining five pawns ahead with a safe game.
H. E. Bird: Chess Practice (1882) p. 86

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Jacob Elson
Philadelphia 1877
Annotations by Søren Anton Sørensen
1 e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 Nc6 4. Bc4 Bc5 5. Bxf7+
Well-known from the Scotch Gambit, this maneuver almost always ends with White losing the initiative.
5… Kxf7 6. Qh5+ g6 7. Qd5+
To check or not before capturing the bishop is the ever disputed question. Here we should be more inclined to skip it.
7… Kg7 8. Qxc5 d6 9. Qc4 Qe7! 10. Nd2 Nf6 11. Qd3 d5 12. cxd4 dxe4 13. Qc3 Nd5 14. Qc5 Qe6
It is of course tempting to not weaken the powerful attack by exchanging queens, but Black would also have a superior position after 14… Qxc5 15. dxc5 Nd4 etc.
15. Ne2 e3 16. Nf3 exf2+ 17. Kxf2 Ncb4 18. Qc4 b5! 19. Qb3

19… a5
Strong as this seems, it is hardly the correct continuation as White can develop his rook. 19… Qe4! should have been played immediately.
20. Re1 a4 21. Qd1 Qe4 22. Kg1
White’s retreat has been motivated by fear, but strangely he now has the best position!
22… Bf5 23. Ng3 Qg4 24. Nxf5+ Qxf5 25. Re5 Qd7 26. Ng5 Rae8
He should have used the other rook.
27. Qe2 Nc6
The roles have been completely switched, Black is now the one retreating.
28. Ne6+ Rxe6
Gives the exchange to ensure Rh8 isn’t locked in.
29. Rxe6 Nxd4 30. Qe5+ Kf7 31. Qxh8 Qxe6 32. Qxh7+ Ke8 33. Qh8+ Kd7 34. Bd2 Nc2 35. Rf1 Nde3? 36. Rf6 Qc4 37. Bc3 Ng4 38. Qh3 Qc5+ 39. Kh1 Nce3 40. Rf4 Qd5 41. Rd4 and White wins. 1-0
Nordisk Skaktidende 1878 pp. 9-10

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: NN
New York (Café International) 1877
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Qe7 6. Ne2 c6 7. Nd2 d6 8. O-O Be6 9. Bd3 Nh6 10. h3 Nd7 11. f4 f5 12. Nd4 fxe4 13. Nxe4 O-O-O 14. Qa4 Nc5 15. Nxc5 dxc5 16. Nxc6 bxc6 17. Qxc6+ Qc7 18. Ba6+ Kb8 19. Be5 and wins. 1-0
Nordisk Skaktidende 1877 p. 267

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: NN
New York (Café International) 1877
Annotations by S. Hertzsprung
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Nf6 6. Nc3 Bb4
One of Black’s best defences.
7. Nf3! O-O
It’s too early to castle, the best move was 7… Nc6.
8. O-O Nc6?
Now it’s too late, there is no time to play d6 to open up for the bishop. Black’s subsequent play is hampered by this bishop’s immobility.
9. Nd5 Nxd5 10. exd5 Ne7

11. Ng5
[White can win a piece with 11. Qd4! Nf5 12. Qg4 g6 13. Bd3. Ed.]
11… d6
To stop d6, but mainly to get the bishop out. White immediately takes advantage of the lost tempo.
12. Bd3 Bf5 13. Bxf5 Nxf5 14. Qg4
Threatening Ne6.
14… g6 15. h4 Bc5 16. h5

16… Ng7
This must be a weak move, it later costs Black a piece. If instead the knight goes to h6, then the queen must leave the g-file and go to f4 – only move to keep the knight protected – and Black wins a tempo which can be used to play Qd7 with a much easier and stronger game. [At the end of this line White has Qf6 forcing mate. Black’s only defence is 16… Bd4! and after 17. Bxd4 Nxd4 18. Nxh7 Kxh7 19. hxg6+ fxg6 20. Qxd4 White has just enough compensation for the missing pawn due to Black’s weak king. Ed.]
17. hxg6 fxg6 18. Bxg7 Qc8 19. Ne6 Rf5
Black has been forced to play these passive moves after 17… fxg6, and had he taken with the h-pawn instead then the White queen would have brought devastation down the h-file. It seems that all this could have been avoided by playing the move mentioned in the previous note.
20. Qe4 c6 21. Bb2
After a successfully completed mission!
21… cxd5 22. Qe1 Qd7 23. Qc3 d4 24. Nxd4
The decisive move! White now forces a decision in a truly elegant and surprising way.
24… Rc8 25. Nxf5 Bxf2+ 26. Rxf2 Rxc3 27. Nh6+ Kg7 28. Rf7+ and wins. 1-0
Nordisk Skaktidende 1877 pp. 267-268
Nationaltidende 21/12 1879

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Houghton
Chicago 1878(?)
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Bb4+ 6. Nc3 Nc6 7. Nge2 Nf6 8. O-O Na5 9. Bd3 O-O 10. e5 Ng4 11. h3 Nxe5 12. Bxh7+ Kxh7 13. Nd5 Nec6 14. Nf6+ gxf6 15. Qd3+ Kh8 16. Qg3 Ne5 17. Qh4+ Kg7 18. Ng3 Bd2 19. Nh5+ Kg6 20. f4 f5 21. Qg3+ Kxh5 22. Qg7 and Black resigned. 1-0
Nordisk Skaktidende 1878 p. 268

White: H. A. W. Lindehn
Black: Gräff
Philadelphia 1879(?)
White gave the odds of a rook (Ra1)
1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Bc4 cxb2 5. Bxb2 Qg5 6. Nf3 Bb4+ 7. Nc3 Bxc3+ 8. Bxc3 Qg6 9. O-O Nh6 10. Ne5 Qd6 11. Qb3 O-O 12. Kh1 Nc6 13. f4 Nxe5 14. Bxe5 Qe7 15. Qg3 g5 16. fxg5 Ng4 17. Bf6 Qxe4 18. Bd3 Qe3 and White mates in 6 moves beginning with 19. Bxh7+. 1-0
Nordisk Skaktidende 1879 p. 245

Further sources:
C. R. A. Fredborg: Det gamla Göteborg (1919) p. 263
Carl Sjöström: Blekingska nationen, 1697-1900 (1901) p. 285
Carl Sjöström: Skånska nationen, 1833-1889 (1904) p. 94
Tell G. Dahllöf: Swedish American Genealogist, December 1982 pp. 157-158
Göteborgs Handels- og Sjöfartstidning, 18 November 1899
Göteborgs-Posten, 31 July 1884
Nordisk Skaktidende 1881 pp. 52-53
Tidsskrift for Skak 1/1900 pp. 8-10
Börje Norén: Tidskrift för Schack 9-10/1947 pp. 255-256
Hjalmar Mandal: Tidskrift för Schack 5-6/1953 pp. 129-130
Sthig Jonasson: Tidskrift för Schack 10/1971 p. 331
Johan Gustaf Schultz: Undervisning i Schackspelet (1871) pp. 115-117 & 136

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